Victoria (VIC)

Attwood, Bain 2017, The Good Country: The Djadja Wurrung, The Settlers and The Protectorate, Monash University Publishing, Melbourne

Balla, Paola, Clare Land and Kate Golding, Blak Cook Book, City of Melbourne, 2021
First Nations’ perspectives of the voyages of Captain James Cook and Cook’s Cottage in Melbourne’s Fitzroy Gardens. Link to PDF version of the book available from the City of Melbourne:

Bride, Thomas Francis, Letters from Victorian Pioneers: Being A Series of Papers on the Early Occupation of the Colony, the Aborigines, etc., published for the Trustees of the Public Library, Melbourne, 1898(9) available at:

Cahir, Fred 2012, Black Gold: Aboriginal People on the Goldfields of Victoria, 1850–1870, Aboriginal History Monograph 25, pp. 109–117

Cannon, Michael 1990, Who Killed the Koories?, William Heinemann Australia, Melbourne

Clark, Ian D 1995, Scars in the Landscape: A Register of Massacre Sites in Western Victoria, 1803–1859, Aboriginal Studies Press

Clark, Ian D, ‘The Convincing Ground Aboriginal massacre at Portland Bay, Victoria: fact or fiction?’, Aboriginal History, Vo. 35 (2011), pp. 79–109 at:,+2011/7171/Text/G04%20Clark.html, accessed on 9 April 2015

Connor, John, ‘The Liverpool Plains and Port Phillip Districts, 1838’ in The Australian Frontier Wars 1788–1838, UNSW Press, 2002, pp. 102–122

Connor, Michael, ‘Convincing Ground: a history’, Quadrant online, 23 March 2009 at:, accessed on 9 April 2015 (An alternative view of the historical evidence relating to the Convincing Ground massacre).

Context, Latrobe Valley Social History: Celebrating and recognising Latrobe Valley’s history and heritage, Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Victoria, 2019, especially Chapter 1: Land and water, Frontier conflict, pp. 21–23, related references and Bibliography

Critchett, Jan 1990, A Distant Field of Murder: Western District Frontiers, 1834–1848, Melbourne University Press

Fels, Marie Hansen 2011, I succeeded once: the Aboriginal Protectorate on the Mornington Peninsula, 1839–1840, ANU E Press, ACT

Finding Merriman, website about Merriman, accused of being a ring-leader of the Faithful massacre near Benalla, Victoria in 1838:

Flyn, Cal 2016, Thicker Than Water: A Memoir of Family, Secrets, Guilt and History, Fourth Estate, Harper CollinsPublishers Australia

Ford, Tony, Waranga Dreaming, Volume 1, 2019. A series of stories about the Ngurai-illum Warrung people of Victoria that appeared in Waranga News, a fortnightly community newspaper based in Rushworth, Victoria; 

Gardner, Peter 1987, Our Founding Murdering Father: Angus McMillan and the Kurnai Tribe of Gippsland 1839–1865, self-published.

Gardner, Peter 1987, Through Foreign Eyes, CGS, Churchill

Gardner, Peter 1993, Gippsland Massacres: The destruction of the Kurnai Tribes 1800–1860, Ngarak Press, Ensay, Victoria

Gardner, Peter, ‘Some Notes on Tribal Warfare and An Event at Tambo Crossing’Gippsland Heritage Journal, No.19, (March 1996), pp. 49–51

Grant, Lachlan, “The Fighting Gunditjmara”––Indigenous people have fought for country and for nation, from frontier wars to world wars’, Wartime: Official Magazine of the Australian War Memorial, Issue 76, Spring 2016, pp. 18–24. The article is available for download on at:

The article includes information about conflicts over land and resources between Europeans and Aboriginal people from the 1830s, particularly the Eumeralla War fought in western Victoria in the 1840s between Europeans and the Gunditjmara people who were fighting for their country and survival.

Guy, Sandy, ‘The Harmers Haven Murders’Traces: Uncovering the Past, Volume 2, 2018, pp. 16–19

Land, Clare 2014, Tunnerminnerwait and Maulboyheenner: the involvement of Aboriginal people from Tasmania in key events of early Melbourne, City of Melbourne

Lay, John 2016, Boodgery: First Contact in the Mid Murray 1820–1860, Not So Shabby Books

Macklin, Robert 2016, Hamilton Hume: Our Greatest Explorer, Hachette Australia, Sydney, New South Wales

Martin, Davey 2011, Essays on the Western District frontier 1835–45: eye-opening studies on secrets kept since Victoria’s frontier days: about our Aborigines, our pioneers and our unknown convicts, PenFolk Publishing, Blackburn, Victoria

Massola, Aldo 1971, The Aborigines of south-eastern Australia–As They Were, William Heinemann, Melbourne, Victoria

Monticone, Judith 1999, Healing the Land: A Closer Look at the Needs of the Australian Reconciliation movement, Vol. 1, Fyshwick, ACT, pp. 244–291

Munro, Chris, ‘Victoria’s silent shame’, footprints, Tracker, Vol 3, Issue 24, July 2013, pp. 48–49 (article about the massacres of the Kurnai of Victoria)

Niewøjt, Lawrence, The massacre of the Gadubanud at Aire River’, Victorian Historical Journal, Vol. 81, No. 2 (November 2010), pp. 193–213. Abstract at:;dn=201211773;res=IELAPA
Originally accessed on 9 April 2015. Link updated 20 March 2020.

Pascoe, Bruce 2007, Convincing Ground: Learning to fall in love with your country, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra

Pascoe, Bruce 2014, Dark Emu–Black Seeds: agriculture or accident? Magabala Books, Broome, Western Australia

Pisch, Anna, Australian National University, ‘Peta Clancy brings a hidden Victorian massacre to the surface with Undercurrent’, The Conversation, 26 March 2019, at:

Randell, JO 1979, Pastoral Settlement in Northern Victoria, Volume 1, Queensberry Press, Melbourne, Victoria 

Randell, JO 1982, Pastoral Settlement in Northern Victoria, Volume 2, The Campaspe District, Chandos, Burwood, Victoria

Ryan, Lyndall,  ‘Aboriginal agents, victims and voyagers: Richard Broome’s contribution to the debate about the frontier wars in Victoria’, Chapter 2 in Ben Silverstein ed., Conflict, Adaptation, Transformation: Richard Broome and the practice of Aboriginal history, Aboriginal Studies Press, 2018, pp. 18–37

Ryan, Lyndall, ‘Settler massacres on the Port Phillip frontier, 1836–1851’, Journal of Australian Studies, Vol. 34, No. 3 (September 2010), pp. 257–273. A description of the article is at:;jsessionid=6EB57A37552233D4E4ADC08A97B6855D?f0=sm_subject%3A%22settlers%22, accessed on 9 April 2015

Silverstein, Ben ed., Conflict, Adaptation, Transformation: Richard Broome and the practice of Aboriginal history, Aboriginal Studies Press, 2018, pp. 18–37

Tully, John 1997, Djaja Wurrung Language of Central Victoria, Dunolly, Victoria. (Includes some conflicts on pages 6 to 9.)

Tully, John 2015, Aborigines of Central Victoria, Weila Publishing, Dunolly, Victoria

Woiwod, Mick 2012, Birrarung database [CD-ROM], Tarcoola Press, Kangaroo Ground, Victoria

Woiwod, Mick 2017, Barak vs The Black Hats of Melbourne: The untold story of how the Black Hats destroyed Coranderrk, Victoria

Compiled by Jane Morrison 2012–2022. Most recent updates 18 April 2022.

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