Victoria (VIC)

Attwood, Bain 2017, The Good Country: The Djadja Wurrung, The Settlers and The Protectorate, Monash University Publishing, Melbourne

Attwood, Bain 2021, William Cooper: An Aboriginal Life Story, Melbourne University Press

Balla, Paola, Clare Land and Kate Golding, Blak Cook Book, City of Melbourne, 2021
First Nations’ perspectives of the voyages of Captain James Cook and Cook’s Cottage in Melbourne’s Fitzroy Gardens. Link to PDF version of the book available from the City of Melbourne:

Bride, Thomas Francis, Letters from Victorian Pioneers: Being A Series of Papers on the Early Occupation of the Colony, the Aborigines, etc., published for the Trustees of the Public Library, Melbourne, 1898(9):

Cahir, Fred 2012, Black Gold: Aboriginal People on the Goldfields of Victoria, 1850–1870, Aboriginal History Monograph 25, pp. 109–117

Cahir, Fred 2019, My Country All Gone: The White Men Have Stolen It, Australian History Matters, Ballarat, Victoria

Cannon, Michael 1990, Who Killed the Koories?, William Heinemann Australia, Melbourne

Clark, Ian D 1995, Scars in the Landscape: A Register of Massacre Sites in Western Victoria, 1803–1859, Aboriginal Studies Press

Clark, Ian D, ed., 1998–2000, The journals of George Augustus Robinson, chief protector, Port Phillip Aboriginal Protectorate, Heritage Matters, Melbourne

Clark, Ian D, ‘The Convincing Ground Aboriginal massacre at Portland Bay, Victoria: fact or fiction?’, Aboriginal History, Vo. 35 (2011), pp. 79–109 at:,+2011/7171/Text/G04%20Clark.html, accessed on 9 April 2015

Connor, John, ‘The Liverpool Plains and Port Phillip Districts, 1838’ in The Australian Frontier Wars 1788–1838, UNSW Press, 2002, pp. 102–122

Connor, Michael, ‘Convincing Ground: a history,’ Quadrant online, 23 March 2009 at:, accessed on 9 April 2015 (An alternative view of the historical evidence relating to the Convincing Ground massacre).

Context, Latrobe Valley Social History: Celebrating and recognising Latrobe Valley’s history and heritage, Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning, Victoria, 2019, especially Chapter 1: Land and water, Frontier conflict, pp. 21–23, related references and Bibliography

Critchett, Jan 1990, A Distant Field of Murder: Western District Frontiers, 1834–1848, Melbourne University Press

Djimbi Ngai–“Here I am”: A History of First Nations in North East Victoria:, accessed 25 September 2023.

Fels, Marie Hansen 2011, I succeeded once: the Aboriginal Protectorate on the Mornington Peninsula, 1839–1840, ANU E Press, ACT

Finding Merriman, website about Merriman, accused of being a ring-leader of the Faithful massacre near Benalla, Victoria in 1838:

Flyn, Cal 2016, Thicker Than Water: A Memoir of Family, Secrets, Guilt and History, Fourth Estate, Harper CollinsPublishers Australia
(Cal Flyn is a Scottish journalist who discovered that she is distantly related to Scottish ‘pioneer’ Angus McMillan, who was implicated in massacres of Gunai (Kurnai) people in Gippsland, Victoria. Cal came to Australia where she discovered some terrible truths. Her research delves into some of Victoria’s darkest colonial secrets and opens her eyes to the long-term consequences of McMillan’s and his accomplices’ brutal acts. She is led to ask whether current generations have inherited a responsibility to atone for the sins of our ancestors.)

Ford, Tony, Waranga Dreaming, Volume 1, 2019. A series of stories about the Ngurai-illum Warrung people of Victoria that appeared in Waranga News, a fortnightly community newspaper based in Rushworth, Victoria;

Gardner, Peter c. 1980, The McMillan Photo: who were the Kurnai with Angus McMillan? Published in the Gippsland Times with minor amendments, 23 May 2014, uploaded to the Peter Gardner blog, November 2012:

Gardner, Peter 1980, ‘The Warrigal Creek Massacre, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, 66, 1, p. 47, republished as Chapter 6 in Gippsland Massacres, 2nd Edition, Ngarak Press, 1993

Gardner, Peter 1982, The Burial Place of Bungaleen:

Gardner, Peter 1987, Our Founding Murdering Father: Angus McMillan and the Kurnai Tribe of Gippsland 1839–1865, self-published.

Gardner, Peter 1987, Through Foreign Eyes, CGS, Churchill

Gardner, Peter 1989, ‘Aboriginal Routes and Guides of the Victorian High Country,’ excerpt from an unpublished paper for the Historical Section of the Department of Conservation and Environment:

Gardner, Peter 1990, Notes on Gippsland Aboriginal Place Names:

Gardner, Peter 1993, Gippsland Massacres: The Destruction of the Kurnai Tribes 1800–1860, Ngarak Press, Ensay, Victoria

Gardner, Peter 1996, European Occupation and Exploration of the Victorian Alps:

Gardner, Peter, ‘Some Notes on Tribal Warfare and An Event at Tambo Crossing,’ Gippsland Heritage Journal, No.19, (March 1996), pp. 49–51:

Gardner, Peter 1997, Some Notes on Victorian Alpine Aborigines:

Gardner, Peter 2003/2007, The Bones of the Warrigal Creek Massacre:

Gardner, Peter 2004, Frontier Violence, Political Correctness and Memorials: brief comments on Henry Reynolds and Bill Bryson:

Gardner, Peter c. 2004, George Dunderdale and the Kurnai:, published online 2014.

Gardner, Peter 2005, The Myth of Tribal Warfare: an Examination of Pre and Post European Conflict in Kurnai Gippsland:

Gardner, Peter c. 2010, A Grampians Massacre? A analysis of the Participant’s account of an early Whyte Brothers massacre in the Portland district:

Gardner, Peter 2015, Another Gippsland Massacre–Holland’s Landing?: Originally written and accepted for publication by the Gippsland Heritage Journal in 2008. Rewritten 2015.

Gardner, Peter 2015, Notes on Tribal Boundaries with particular reference to the Boundary between the Bratauolung and the Bunurong: Unpublished paper written about 2003 revised. Revised, revised and rewritten 2014-15.

Gardner, Peter 2015? Some Random Notes on the Massacres 2000–2015:

Gardner, Peter 2016?, Howitt’s “Line of Blood and the Introduction to Kamilaroi and Kurnai:

Gardner, Peter 2016, Our Founding Murdering Father Revisited:

Gardner, Peter 2016, The Firearms and Massacre Statistics in Frontier Gippsland, October 2016:

Gardner, Peter 2017, In Pursuit of Bungaleen: a journey to locate and mark the Aboriginal Cemetery at Stud Road Police Barracks:

Gardner, Peter 2017, Recent Notes on Massacres:

Gardner, Peter 2018, Some Notes on a Review of Cal Flyn’s Thicker Than Water (Harper Collins, Sydney, 2016 by Dr. Peter Crowley, uploaded January 2018:
[For the Crowley review see Inside Story:, 2 June 2016]

Gardner, Peter 2018, Prelude to the Warrigal Creek Massacre:

Gardner, Peter 2020, Notes on Massacres, uploaded January 2021:

Gardner, Peter 2021, The Warrigal Creek Massacre–a Reply to Wayne Caldow, January 2021:

Gardner, Peter 2022, Warrigal Creek and R.L. Bell, uploaded 4 August 2022:

Grant, Lachlan, “The Fighting Gunditjmara”–Indigenous people have fought for country and for nation, from frontier wars to world wars,’ Wartime: Official Magazine of the Australian War Memorial, Issue 76, Spring 2016, pp. 18–24. The article is available for download on

This article includes information about conflicts over land and resources between Europeans and Aboriginal people from the 1830s, particularly the Eumeralla War fought in western Victoria in the 1840s between Europeans and the Gunditjmara people who were fighting for their Country and survival.

Guy, Sandy, ‘The Harmers Haven Murders,’ Traces: Uncovering the Past, Volume 2, 2018, pp. 16–19

Kerkhove, Ray 2023, How They Fought: Indigenous Tactics and Weaponry of Australia’s Frontier Wars, Boolarong Press

Land, Clare 2014, Tunnerminnerwait and Maulboyheenner: the involvement of Aboriginal people from Tasmania in key events of early Melbourne, City of Melbourne

Lay, John 2016, Boodgery: First Contact in the Mid Murray 1820–1860, Not So Shabby Books

Macklin, Robert 2016, Hamilton Hume: Our Greatest Explorer, Hachette Australia, Sydney, New South Wales

Martin, Davey 2011, Essays on the Western District frontier 1835–45: eye-opening studies on secrets kept since Victoria’s frontier days: about our Aborigines, our pioneers and our unknown convicts, PenFolk Publishing, Blackburn, Victoria

Massola, Aldo 1971, The Aborigines of south-eastern Australia–As They Were, William Heinemann, Melbourne, Victoria

Monticone, Judith 1999, Healing the Land: A Closer Look at the Needs of the Australian Reconciliation movement, Vol. 1, Fyshwick, ACT, pp. 244–291

Munro, Chris, ‘Victoria’s silent shame’, footprints, Tracker, Vol 3, Issue 24, July 2013, pp. 48–49 (article about the massacres of the Kurnai of Victoria)

Niewøjt, Lawrence, The massacre of the Gadubanud at Aire River,’ Victorian Historical Journal, Vol. 81, No. 2 (November 2010), pp. 193–213.

Pascoe, Bruce 2007, Convincing Ground: Learning to fall in love with your country, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra

Pascoe, Bruce 2014, Dark Emu–Black Seeds: agriculture or accident? Magabala Books, Broome, Western Australia

Pisch, Anna, Australian National University, ‘Peta Clancy brings a hidden Victorian massacre to the surface with Undercurrent,’ The Conversation, 26 March 2019:

Randell, JO 1979, Pastoral Settlement in Northern Victoria, Volume 1, Queensberry Press, Melbourne, Victoria

Randell, JO 1982, Pastoral Settlement in Northern Victoria, Volume 2, The Campaspe District, Chandos, Burwood, Victoria

Ryan, Lyndall, ‘Aboriginal agents, victims and voyagers: Richard Broome’s contribution to the debate about the frontier wars in Victoria,’ Chapter 2 in Ben Silverstein ed., Conflict, Adaptation, Transformation: Richard Broome and the practice of Aboriginal history, Aboriginal Studies Press, 2018, pp. 18–37

Ryan, Lyndall, ‘Settler massacres on the Port Phillip frontier, 1836–1851,’ Journal of Australian Studies, Vol. 34, No. 3 (September 2010), pp. 257–273. A description of the article:;jsessionid=6EB57A37552233D4E4ADC08A97B6855D?f0=sm_subject%3A%22settlers%22, accessed on 9 April 2015

Silverstein, Ben ed., 2018, Conflict, Adaptation, Transformation: Richard Broome and the practice of Aboriginal history, Aboriginal Studies Press, pp. 18–37

Stephens, Marguerita with Fay Stewart-Muir 2023, The Years of Terror, Banbu-Deen: Kulin and Colonists at Port Phillip, 1835–1851, Australian Scholarly Publishing (Released 10 August 2023).

The journals of George Augustus Robinson, chief protector, Port Phillip Aboriginal Protectorate, ed. Ian D. Clark, Heritage Matters, Melbourne, 1988–2000.

Tully, John 1997, Djaja Wurrung Language of Central Victoria, Dunolly, Victoria. (Includes some conflicts on pages 6 to 9.)

Tully, John 2015, Aborigines of Central Victoria, Weila Publishing, Dunolly, Victoria

Wills-Johnson, Brian 2017, ‘A most dangerous character’: The remarkable life of Yonki Yonka, thesis presented for the degree of Master of Philosophy of The University of Western Australia

Woiwod, Mick 2012, Birrarung database [CD-ROM], Tarcoola Press, Kangaroo Ground, Victoria

Woiwod, Mick 2017, Barak vs The Black Hats of Melbourne: The untold story of how the Black Hats destroyed Coranderrk, Victoria

Compiled by Jane Morrison 2012–2022. Most recent updates 18 April 2022, 5/6 August 2022, 2 October 2022, 31 May 2023, 6, 11 September 2023, 4, 13 October 2023.

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