Australian Frontier Conflicts
Journal Articles

Listed below, by author, are some journal articles relating to conflict between colonists and First Nations peoples on the Australian frontier. This list is updated from time to time. Check the National Library of Australia’s Trove database at: for availability online and in hard copy. You can find more written resources on Australian frontier conflicts under Bibliography. Many of the books listed include other journal articles not included below.

Anderson, Steven, ‘Punishment as pacification: The role of Indigenous executions on the South Australian frontier, 1836–1862’, Aboriginal History, Volume 39, 2015, available at:

Auty, Kate, ‘Patrick Bernard O’Leary and the Forrest River Massacres, Western Australia: examining “Wodgil” and the significance of 8 June 1926’, Aboriginal History, Vol. 28, 2004, pp. 122–155, available at:

Banivanua Mar, Tracey, ‘Settler-colonial landscapes and narratives of possession’, Arena Journal, no. 37/38, 2012, pp. [176]–198. Abstract at:;dn=640442097320602;res=IELLCC
originally accessed on 9 April 2015. Link updated 14 January 2020. The paper refers to Kalkadoon/Mitakoodi, Queensland massacre history.

Barker, Bryce, ‘Massacre, Frontier Conflict and Australian Archaeology’, Australian Archaeology, No. 64, 2007, pp. 9–14

Barrington, Robin, ‘Unravelling the Yamaji imaginings of Alexander Morton and Daisy Bates’, Aboriginal History, Volume 39, 2015 available at:

Barritt-Eyles, Lisa, University of Newcastle, ‘Gargoyles and silence: “Our story” at the Australian War Memorial, 18 March 2015, at:

Burke, Heather, Bryce Barker, Lynley Wallis, Sarah Craig and Michelle Combo, ‘Betwixt and Between: Trauma, Survival and Aboriginal Troopers of the Queensland Native Mounted Police’, Journal of Genocide Research, March 2020, (Taylor & Francis Online) DOI: 10.1080/14623528.2020.1735147

Clark, Ian D, ‘The Convincing Ground Aboriginal massacre at Portland Bay, Victoria: fact or fiction?’, Aboriginal History, Vol. 35, 2011, pp. 79–109 at:,+2011/7171/Text/G04%20Clark.html, accessed on 9 April 2015

Clements, Nick, ‘“Army of sufferers”: the experience of Tasmania’s black line’, Journal of Australian Studies, Vol. 37 No. 1 (March 2013), pp. 19–33. Abstract at:, accessed on 9 April 2015

Clements, Nicholas, University of Tasmania, ‘Tasmania’s Black War: a tragic case of lest we remember?’, The Conversation, 24 April 2014 at:

Collins, Patrick J, ‘Richard, Frederick and Robert: Three Militant Walkers on the Maranoa Frontier’, Queensland History Journal, Vol. 20, No.10, (May 2009), pp. 457–519

Connor, Michael, ‘Convincing Ground: a history’, Quadrant online, 23 March 2009 at:, accessed on 9 April 2015 (An alternative view of the historical evidence relating to the Convincing Ground massacre).

Connors, Libby, ‘Witness to frontier violence: an Aboriginal boy before the Supreme Court’, Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 42, No. 2 (June 2001), pp. 230–243. Abstract at:, accessed on 9 April 2015

Daley, Paul, ‘Restless Indigenous Remains’, Meanjin, 8 September 2014 at:, accessed on 8 September 2014

Debenham, Jennifer, ‘Truth Telling in the Digital Age: A Hunter Valley Massacre’, History, December 2020, pp. 10–13, accessed on 27 March 2021. This article appears in History, the Magazine of the Royal Australian Historical Society, December 2020, Number 146:

Finnane, Mark and Jonathan Richards, ‘“You’ll get nothing out of it”? The Inquest, Police and Aboriginal Deaths in Colonial Queensland’, Australian Historical Studies No. 123, April 2004, pp. 84–105, now (20 March 2020) available at:’You’ll_get_nothing_out_of_it’_The_Inquest_Police_and_Aboriginal_Deaths_in_Colonial_Queensland

Foster, Robert, ‘Don’t mention the war: frontier violence and the language of concealment’, History Australia, Vol. 6, No. 3 (December 2009), pp. 68.1–68.15. Published online on 18 February 2016. Abstract, accessed on 14 January 2020 at:

Gardner, Peter, ‘Some Notes on Tribal Warfare and An Event at Tambo Crossing’, Gippsland Heritage Journal, No.19, (March 1996), pp. 49–51

Grant, Lachlan, ‘“The Fighting Gunditjmara”––Indigenous people have fought for country and for nation, from frontier wars to world wars’, Wartime: Official Magazine of the Australian War Memorial, Issue 76, Spring 2016, pp. 18–24 downloadable on at:

Green, Neville, ‘Dilemmas, dramas and damnation in contested history’, Studies in Australian History, No. 23, 2010, pp. [203]–214. Abstract originally accessed on 9 April 2015 at:;dn=015112321304421;res=IELAPA on 14 January 2020. Reviews the evidence for the Forrest River massacre in Western Australia.

Grieves, Victoria, ‘Jamaica Australia historical connections and the Black diaspora in the Australian Pacific Region, “Maroons, Indigenous People and Indigeneity Part 2”’, Charles Town Maroon Council, 7th Annual International Maroon Conference, Charles Town, Portland, Jamaica, 2015, pp. 12–13

Guy, Sandy, ‘The Harmers Haven Murders’, Traces: Uncovering the Past, Volume 2, 2018, pp. 16–19

Harman, Kristyn, University of Tasmania and Carolyn Philpott, University of Tasmania, ‘A Tasmanian Requiem is a musical reckoning, and a pathway to reconciliation’, The Conversation, 24 April 2018, at:

Hodges, Flavia, ‘Language Planning and Placenaming in Australia’, Current Issues in Language Planning, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2007, pp. 383–403

Kerkhove, Ray, ‘A different mode of war? Aboriginal “guerilla tactics” in defining the “Black War” of Southern Queensland 1843–1855’. Paper presented at the AHA Conference, University of Queensland, Brisbane July 2014. Copy available at:

Kerkhove, Ray, ‘Barriers and Bastions: Fortified Frontiers and white and black tactics, paper presented at ‘Our Shared History: resistance and reconciliation’, Central Queensland University seminar, Noosa, Queensland, 11 June 2015, now (14 January 2020) available online via at:

Kerkhove, Ray, ‘Reconstructing the Battle of ‘Narawai (Moongalba)’, Queensland Review, Vol. 26, Issue 1, 2019, pp. 3–31:, accessed 30 April 2021

Kerkhove, Ray, ‘Tribal alliances with broader agendas? Aboriginal resistance in southern Queensland’s “Black War”’, Cosmopolitan and Civil Societies, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2014, University of Technology, Sydney

Laurie, Arthur, ‘The Black War in Queensland’, read before the Meeting of the Royal Historical Society of Queensland, 23 October 1958

Lendrum, SD, ‘The “Coorong Massacre”: Martial Law and the Aborigines at First Settlement’, Adelaide Law Review, 6, 1977, pp. 26–43. A link to the paper is at:, accessed on 9 April 2015

Litster, Mirani and Lynley A Wallis, ‘Looking for the proverbial needle? The archaeology of Australian frontier massacres’, Archaeology in Oceania, Vol. 46, No. 3, (October 2011), pp. 105–117. Abstract at:, accessed on 9 April 2015

Lydon, Jane, University of Western Australia, ‘Noble horses and “black monsters”: the politics of colonial compassion’, The Conversation, 16 October 2017, at:

Lydon, Jane, ‘“no moral doubt …”: Aboriginal evidence and the Kangaroo Creek poisoning, 1847–1849’, Aboriginal History, 20, 1996, pp. 151–175 at:

Mackenzie-Smith, John, ‘The Kilcoy poisonings revisited’, Queensland History Journal, Vol. 20, No. 11, (August 2009), pp. 593–605. Availability:;dn=200909223;res=IELAPA
ISSN: 1836-5477. [cited 05 Jan 18].

Manera, Brad, Review of John Connor, The Australian frontier wars 1788–1838, University of New South Wales Press, Sydney, 2002, Journal of the Australian War Memorial [ND] at:, accessed on 24 August 2016

McQueen, Humphrey, ‘The real battle for Australia: pioneering writing on the Frontier Wars (Parts I-III)’, Honest History, 2 September 2014 at:

Maxwell–Stewart, Hamish, ‘Competition and Conflict on The Forgotten Frontier Western Van Diemen’s Land 1822–33’, History Australia, Vol. 6, No. 3 (December 2009), pp. 66.1–66.20. Published online on 18 February 2016. Abstract accessed on 14 January 2020 at:

Mear, Craig, ‘The origin of the smallpox outbreak in Sydney 1789’, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 94, Part 1, June 2008, pp. 1–22, available on the Treaty Republic website at:, accessed on 13 February 2017

Milne, Edmund, ‘War on the Bogan frontier’, The Lone Hand, v. 7, no. 7, 1 June 1917, pp. 339–341 at:  accessed on 27 June 2017

Moore, Clive, ‘Blackgin’s Leap’: A Window into Aboriginal-European Relations in the Pioneer Valley, Queensland’, Aboriginal History, Volume Fourteen, Part 1, 1990, pp. 61–79. Available at:

Muecke, Stephen, Alan Rumsey and Banjo Wirrunmarra, ‘Pigeon the Outlaw: history as texts’, Aboriginal History, Volume Nine, 1985, pp. 81–100

Nettelbeck, Amanda, ‘Writing and remembering frontier conflict: the rule of law in 1880s central Australia’, Aboriginal History, Vol. 28, 2004, pp. 190–206 at:, accessed on 2 April 2017

Newbury, Paul, ‘My family connection to Aboriginal genocide’, Eureka Street, Vol. 23 No. 8, 29 April 2013 at:, accessed on 6 August 2016

Niewøjt, Lawrence, ‘The massacre of the Gadubanud at Aire River’, Victorian Historical Journal, Vol. 81, No. 2 (November 2010), pp. 193–213.

Pascoe, Robert, Victoria University and Gerardo Papalia, LaTrobe University, ‘Did Indigenous warriors influence the development of Australian rules football?’, The Conversation, 23 March 2017, at: 

Pisch, Anna, Australian National University, ‘Peta Clancy brings a hidden Victorian massacre to the surface with Undercurrent’, The Conversation, 26 March 2019, at:

Read, Peter, ‘Murder, Revenge and Reconciliation on the North Eastern Frontier’, History Australia, Vol, 4, No. 1, 2007, Monash University Press, pp. 0.91–09.15. Abstract available at:

Reader, Paul, University of New England, ‘Kidman’s sale marks second wave of South Australian colonisation’, The Conversation, 24 April 2015 at:

Refshauge, WF, ‘The swivel gun massacre’, Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 57, No. 1, (April 2010), pp. 40–44

Reynolds, Henry, ‘Australia was founded on a hypocrisy that haunts us to this day’, The Conversation, 27 August 2018:

Reynolds, Henry, ‘Frontier Conflict and the War Memorial’, Meanjin, Autumn 2019 at:

Roberts, Amy, ‘The space of conflict: Aboriginal/European interactions and frontier violence on the Western Central Murray, South Australia, 1830–1841’, Aboriginal History, Vol. 40. 2016, pp. 145–179:, accessed 22 May 2021

Roberts, Amy, ‘An Archaeological Investigation of Local Aboriginal Responses to European Colonisation in the South Australian Riverland via an Assessment of Culturally Modified Trees’, Journal of the Anthropological Society of South Australia, Volume 43, December 2019, pp. 33–70:, accessed 12 May 2021

Roberts, Tony, ‘The brutal truth: what happened in the Gulf Country’, The Monthly, (November 2009), pp. 15–17. A link to the article is at:, accessed on 9 April 2015. Describes massacres in the Gulf Country of the Northern Territory.

Rogers, Thomas James, ‘William Murray and the Coniston Massacre–A returned soldier’s frontier crimes were probably not a result of his war service’, Wartime, Issue 85, Summer 2019, pp. 36–40

Ryan, Lyndall, ‘List of multiple killings of Aborigines in Tasmania: 1804–1835’, Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, [online], published on: 5 March, 2008, accessed 07/05/2018,, ISSN 1961-9898

Ryan, Lyndall, ‘Settler massacres on the Port Phillip frontier, 1836–1851’, Journal of Australian Studies, Vo. 34, No. 3 (September 2010), pp. 257–273. A description of the article is at:;jsessionid=6EB57A37552233D4E4ADC08A97B6855D?f0=sm_subject%3A%22settlers%22, accessed on 9 April 2015

Ryan, Lyndall, ‘The Black Line in Van Diemen’s Land: success or failure?’, Journal of Australian Studies, Vol. 37, No. 1 (March 2013), pp. 3–18. A first page preview of the article is at:, accessed on 9 April 2015

Shiels, Julie, RMIT University, ‘Julie Gough’s “Tense Past” reminds us how the brutalities of colonial settlement are still felt today’, The Conversation, 24 June 2018, at:

Smith, Pamela and Keryn Walshe, ‘Oral testimony of an Aboriginal massacre now supported by scientific evidence’, The Conversation, 31 October 2017, at:

Stanley, Peter, University of New South Wales, ‘On Anzac Day, we remember the Great War but forget our first war’, The Conversation, 25 April 2014 at:

Tedeschi, Mark, ‘Justice evaded, justice denied’, Inside History, (May–June 2014) pp. 40–45. A re-examination of the trials of those responsible for the 1838 Myall Creek massacre, New South Wales. Part 1 in a two-part series.

Tedeschi, Mark, ‘We remember them’, Inside History, (July–August 2014) pp. 46–51. Part 2 of a re-examination of the trial of those responsible for the 1838 Myall Creek massacre, New South Wales.

‘The History of the Native Mounted Police’, (reprinted with the permission of the Queensland Police Department), Generation, Quarterly Journal of the Geneaological Society of Queensland Inc., Vol. 10, No. 1, September 1987, pp. 7–12

Uhr, Frank, ‘The Raid of the Aborigines: brief overview and background to the poem’, Journal of the Royal Historical Society of Queensland, Vol. 17, No. 12, (November 2001), pp. 559–561. Available at:;dn=200116747;res=IELAPA ISSN: 1447-1345. [cited 05 Jan 18].

Uhr, Frank, ‘September 12, 1843; The Battle of One Tree Hill–A turning point in the conquest of Moreton Bay’, Journal of the Royal Historical Society of Queensland, Vol. 18, No. 6, May 2003, pp. 241–255. Available at:;dn=200305667;res=IELAPA
ISSN: 1447-1345. [cited 05 Jan 18].

Wilson, Bill and Justin O’Brien, ‘“To infuse an universal terror”: a reappraisal of the Coniston killings’, Aboriginal History, Vol. 27, 2003, pp. 59–78. Available at:

Wood, Rebecca, ‘Frontier violence and the Bush Legend: The Sydney Herald’s Response to the Myall Creek Massacre Trials and the Creation of Colonial Identity’, History Australia, Vol. 6, No. 3 (December 2009), pp. 67.1–67.19. Published online on 18 February 2016.


Compiled by Jane Morrison 2012–2021
Updated 27 May 2021.