Eumarrah (1798–1832) (also spelt Umarra or Umarrah)
An Aboriginal leader of the Stoney Creek or Tyerer-note-panner people, Eumarrah was born in 1798 in the Tasmanian midlands around Campbell Town on the island then known as Van Diemen’s Land. Also known as Kanneherlargenner and Moleteheerlaggenner, Eumarrah led his people when conflict broke out with European colonists in 1826–27. Late in 1828 Gilbert Robertson captured Eumarrah and his first wife, Laoninneloonner, who died in 1831. Eumarrah spent a year in Richmond gaol after which, in 1830, he joined George Augustus Robinson’s ‘friendly mission’ through the south-west of Tasmania, leaving Robinson and his party in May. After trekking back to his homeland area, Eumarrah joined Lieutenant-Governor Sir George Arthur’s ‘Black Line’ operation that was aimed at rounding up Aboriginal people still attempting to live traditional lives. However Eumarrah soon left this operation for the Tamar and Esk valleys and the north-east of Tasmania where he engaged in conflicts with colonists.
From October 1831 to January 1832, Eumarrah was one of the Tasmanians who accompanied Robinson on his mission to the Big River people, both helping and hindering Robinson’s search for them. The party later accompanied Robinson to Hobart Town and Eumarrah went with him to Launceston and Flinders Island. On 24 March 1832 Eumarrah died in a Launceston Hospital from dysentery. He is buried in St John’s graveyard, Launceston.
Woolaytoopinneta, Eumarrah’s second wife, died in May 1832. Among Eumarrah’s relatives was Planobeena (Fanny) who was the wife of Tunnerminnerwait (c.1812–1842) (see entry for him below).
More information about Eumarrah is in Michael Roe’s entry on him in the Australian Dictionary of Biography, Eumarrah (1798–1832)’, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, https://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/eumarrah-12905/text23313, published first in hardcopy 2005, accessed online 29 April 2021. See also Robert Cox, Broken Spear: The untold story of Black Tom Birch, the man who sparked Australia’s bloodiest war, Wakefield Press, 2021.
Jandamarra (‘Pigeon’) (c. 1870–1897) was a Bunuba warrior who led an armed insurrection against Europeans who attempted to set up a large station on Bunuba land in the Kimberley region of Western Australia.
For more information on Jandamarra see for example:
- the entry by Howard Pedersen on Jandamarra in Indigenous Australia, Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University: http://ia.anu.edu.au/biography/jandamarra-8822
- David Lowe 1994, ‘Jandamarra of the Bunuba,’ in Forgotten Rebels: Black Australians Who Fought Back, pp. 38–45, available online on Dr Gary Foley’s Kooriweb:
http://www.kooriweb.org/foley/resources/pdfs/127.pdf, accessed 27 July 2015
- Howard Pedersen and Banjo Woorunmurra 1995, Jandamarra and the Bunuba resistance, Magabala Books, Broome, Western Australia
- Craig Cormick 1998, ‘Jandamarrajandamarrajandamarra!’ in Unwritten Histories, Aboriginal Studies Press, pp. 137–149
- W Campbell Charnley 2010, Pigeon, Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia
- Kevin Moran 2011, Sand and Stone: Pigeon, Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia
- Mark Greenwood 2013, Jandamarra, Allen & Unwin, Crow’s Nest, New South Wales
- Emily Jane Smith, ‘Jandamarra: : The outlaw who fought to save his country and people from colonisation’, ABC Kimberley, 4 July 2018: