Memorials and Monuments – Australian frontier conflicts

Although there are some memorials to conflicts that took place on the Australian frontier and to the people who were involved in them, the majority of the people involved and the places where confrontations, killings and massacres took place are not recognised. Compared to the many memorials across the country, dedicated to the fallen in wars in which Australians have participated overseas, the lack of frontier conflict memorials is a very sad indictment of the level of knowledge understanding and compassion of governments and Australians generally about, and for, the people who gave their lives on the Australian frontier. Below are links to websites relating to memorials and monuments, in Australian States and Territories, to some known conflicts between colonists and Australia’s First Peoples. This list, that was first created in 2015, is being expanded as more information becomes available.  Please let us know about any memorials or monuments, already existing or proposed, that are not included in the list below. Please also let us know of any broken links via our online email contact facility.

WARNING: This website and links to other sources, contain images, names, or voices, of deceased people in text, etchings, photographs, film, audio recordings, news media, paintings and printed material.

AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY(ACT)NEW SOUTH WALES (NSW)
NORTHERN TERRITORY (NT) (NSW)QUEENSLAND (QLD)
SOUTH AUSTRALIA (SA)TASMANIA (TAS)
VICTORIA (VIC)WESTERN AUSTRALIA (WA)

AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY(ACT)

The Aboriginal Memorial (Poles Memorial)

National Gallery of Australia
Parkes Place
Parkes, ACT

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/90152-the-aboriginal--memorial-poles-memorial-
http://nga.gov.au/Collections/ATSI/GALLERY.cfm?DisplayGal=23
http://nga.gov.au/AboriginalMemorial/

NEW SOUTH WALES (NSW)

Appin Massacre, Cataract Dam, NSW

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/20069-appin-massacre

http://www.dictionaryofsydney.org/entry/appin_massacre

Battle of Richmond Hill monument

177 Grose Vale Road
St John of God Hospital
North Richmond, NSW

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/93434-battle-of-richmond-hill

http://www.historyofaboriginalsydney.edu.au/west/battle-richmond-hill

http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/heritageapp/ViewHeritageItemDetails.aspx?ID=5055948

Bluff Rock Massacre monument

New England Highway
Tenterfield, NSW

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/23416-bluff-rock-massacre

http://www.tenterfield.nsw.gov.au/community-services-tenterfield/aboriginal-community-tenterfield/1158015-bluff-rock

Cameraygal People monument

Woodford Street
Woodford Bay
Longueville, NSW

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/21930-cameraygal-people

East Ballina Massacre site plaque and cross

Shelly Beach Road
East Ballina, NSW

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/21079-east-ballina-massacre-site

http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/nswcultureheritage/frontier.htm

Hospital Creek Massacre monument

Hospital Creek, Goodooga Road, 15 kms from
Brewarrina, NSW

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/20518-hospital-creek-massacre

http://www.breshire.com/about-the-shire-brewarrina/our-history-brewarrina/1130835-hospital-creek-massacre

Myall Creek Massacre Memorial

Myall Creek, Delungra Road, 20 km north of
Bingara, NSW

Links here: http://www.bingara.com.au/index.cfm?page_id=1059

http://www.environment.gov.au/heritage/places/national/myall-creek

http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/22435-myall-creek-massacre

http://www.newagemultimedia.com/isaacs/MyallCrk.html

Reconciliation Plaque

(Honouring Aboriginal and European people who gave their lives in Australian frontier conflicts)
Allyn River Road, Mount Razorback,
10.3 kms north-west of Gresford, NSW

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/22362-reconciliation-plaque

Windradyne’s Grave plaque

Brucedale, Suttor property
1361 Sofala Road
Bathurst, NSW

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/people/indigenous/display/20263-windradyne-

http://heritagebathurst.com/history-matters/indigenous-history/

http://www.nma.gov.au/online_features/aboriginal_breastplates/reactions_of_aboriginal_people_to_gorgets

NORTHERN TERRITORY (NT)

Coniston Massacre monuments

Baxters Well
East of Willowra, NT

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/80056-coniston-massacre

Brooks Soak

Mount Denison Road
NW of Alice Springs, NT

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/80059-coniston-massacre-

http://www.nma.gov.au/exhibitions/first_australians/resistance/coniston_massacre/coniston_anniversary

http://www.territorystories.nt.gov.au/bitstream/handle/10070/213508/Remembering_the_Coniston_Massacre.pdf?sequence=1

Dhakiyarr Wirrpanda & McColl memorial

Foyer, Supreme Court
9 Smith Street
Darwin, NT

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/people/legal/display/80140-dhakiyarr-wirrpanda-and-mccoll

Stapleton & Franks Memorial

Barrow Creek Telegraph Station
Stuart Highway
Barrow Creek, NT

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/80051-stapleton-and-franks-memorial

http://collections.slsa.sa.gov.au/resource/B+8972

QUEENSLAND (QLD)

Hornet Bank
Fraser Family Memorial

Hornet Bank Road
Hornet Bank Station
Taroom, QLD

Links here: http://eheritage.metadata.net/record/QLD-602075

http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/92622-hornet-bank-massacre

http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/queensland/australian-history-the-hornet-bank-massacre-in-queensland-presented-by-crime-files-by-kate-kyriacou/story-fntwpug1-1227400625598

Battle Mountain (Mount Remarkable) memorial

Kalkadoon/Kalatunga Memorial
20 kms south-west of Kajabbi, QLD

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/91742-kalkadoon-%2F-kalkatunga-memorial

http://www.cherneesutton.com.au/index.php?_a=product&product_id=4

See also Lisanne Gibson and Joanna Besley 2004, Monumental Queensland: Signposts on a Cultural Landscape, University of Queensland Press at: https://books.google.com.au/books?id=3pFHr9ilvtoC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=Battle+Mountain,Queensland+monument&source=bl&ots=DYAef4Lkh1&sig=ifHHg2Y2RwK-GDpgApOxn8rdYYo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAmoVChMIl_LpgvbtxgIVCpiUCh1lLACY#v=onepage&q=Battle%20Mountain%2CQueensland%20monument&f=false

Jackey Jackey memorial plaque

Bamaga Airport
Bamaga, QLD

Link here: Lisanne Gibson and Joanna Besley 2004, Monumental Queensland: Signposts on a Cultural Landscape, University of Queensland Press at: https://books.google.com.au/books?id=3pFHr9ilvtoC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=Battle+Mountain,Queensland+monument&source=bl&ots=DYAef4Lkh1&sig=ifHHg2Y2RwK-GDpgApOxn8rdYYo&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAmoVChMIl_LpgvbtxgIVCpiUCh1lLACY#v=onepage&q=Battle%20Mountain%2CQueensland%20monument&f=false

Mary Watson memorial

Charlotte Street
Cooktown, QLD

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/91193-mary-watson

http://www.bonzle.com/pictures-over-time/pictures-taken-in-1886/page-1/size-3/picture-9gosss00/cooktown/unveiling-mrs-watsons-memorial-at-cooktown-1886

http://www-staff.it.uts.edu.au/~jenny/photos/Lower-Cape-York-Peninsula/slides/Mary%20Watson%20memorial%20Cooktown%20Queensland.html

Multuggerah memorial plaque

Duggan Park, Leslie Street
Toowoomba, QLD

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/92754-multuggerah

http://www.thechronicle.com.au/news/apn-plaque-honours-aborigina/2728/

Wills Massacre Cairn

Lake Maraboon, Cullin La Ringo Road
Springsure, QLD

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/92552-wills-massacre-

SOUTH AUSTRALIA (SA)

Frank Hawson memorial

Kali Grove, Hawson Place,
Port Lincoln, SA

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/51513-frank-hawson

https://hawsonstory.wordpress.com/frank-hawson/

http://collections.slsa.sa.gov.au/resource/PRG+559/3/25

Maria Massacre monument

Maria Monument
Apex Park, East Terrace
Kingston SE, SA

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/51020-maria-monument

TASMANIA (TAS)

Memorial plaque to Truganini, Bruny Island

Truganini is perhaps one of Australia's most famous Aboriginal people, at one time believed to be the last Tasmanian. Bruny Island, one of the small islands off Tasmania, has a memorial plaque to her. Truganini, Tunnerminnerwait's wife Planobeena, and Pyterruner, were tried in Melbourne, Victoria in late 1841 as accessories to the murders of two whalers at Cape Paterson, Victoria. They were found not guilty. Tasmanian warriors Tunnerminnerwait and Maulboyhenner were condemned to death for the whalers' murders and hanged in Melbourne early in the morning of 20 January 1842. In December 2013 Melbourne City Council voted unanimously to erect a memorial in Melbourne to the men, once seen as common criminals rather than as freedom fighters defending their land and the very existence of their culture and nations. In 2016 a memorial to Tunnerminnerwait and Maulboyhenner was designed following consultations with Victorian and Tasmanian Aboriginal communities. One newspaper article summarises their story and how they were not allowed to give evidence in court. Read more at http://www.smh.com.au/national/once-were-warriors-20140204-31zmu.html

VICTORIA (VIC)

Aboriginal Massacres memorial stone

Bank Street
Port Fairy, VIC

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/95216-aboriginal-massacres-monument

http://www.standard.net.au/story/792108/the-south-wests-bloody-past/

Aborigines of Port Phillip monument

Information Centre, First Settlement Site
Port Nepean Road & Leggatt Way
Sorrento, VIC

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/33435-aborigines-of-port-phillip

http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/hindsight/a-forgotten-war/5926302

Battle of Yering monument

Yarra Flats Billabongs
Melba Highway
Yarra Glen, VIC

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/30552-battle-of-yering

http://nrg.org.au/index_files/Plaques%20brochure%20(web).pdf

Dan ‘the Cook’ Dempsey memorial stone

Orbost, VIC

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/33011-dan-dempsey

http://nrg.org.au/index_files/Plaques%20brochure%20(web).pdf

Faithfull Massacre memorial

Kent Street
Lake Benalla
Benalla, VIC

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/30333-faithfull-massacre-site-memorial

http://www.tomorrowtoday.com.au/?file=current_projects&smid=12

Konongwootong Quiet Place

Konongwootong Reservoir
Konongwootong, about 11 km north of Coleraine, VIC

Links here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/103088-konongwootong-quiet-place-

http://www.wannonwater.com.au/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=637&Itemid=624

http://www.standard.net.au/story/2404927/reservoir-ceremony-remembers-aboriginal-massacre/

Massacre Hill memorial

5 kilometres west of Peterborough, VIC

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/33076-massacre-hill

Mount Dispersion Cairn

Mount Dispersion
Tapaulin Mail Route Road
Midway between Mildura and Robinvale, VIC

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/32608-mount-dispersion-cairn

Mount Dispersion Plaque

Aboriginal Keeping Place Museum
Shepparton, VIC

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/33404-mount-dispersion-plaque

Memorial to Maulboyhenner and Tunnerminnerwait, Melbourne

As mentioned above, the Melbourne City Council unanimously voted for a memorial to Tasmanians Maulboyhenner and Tunnerminnerwait. The memorial has been designed. A date is yet to be announced for its dedication (2016).

WESTERN AUSTRALIA (WA)

Butterabby Graves

Mingenew Road, 15km S of
Mullewa, WA

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/60850-butterabby-graves

Chipper’s Leap monument

Padbury Road, Greenmount Hill
Greenmount, WA

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/60560-chipper%60s-leap

Flying Foam Massacre monument

Burrup Peninsula
Dampier, WA

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/60363-flying-foam-massacre

Injudinah Massacre plaque

Explorers Memorial
The Esplanade
Fremantle, WA

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/60490-injudinah--massacre

Kakenarup Memorial
15 kms from Ravensthorpe

Memorial to those who died around Cocanarup in the early years of colonisation.

Link here: www.roamingdownunder.com/kukrnarup.php

Michael Tobin grave
Canning Stock Route near Well 40,
Tobin Lake

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/108861-michael-tobin

Mistake Creek Massacre monument
Warmun (Turkey Creek), WA

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/93363-mistake-creek-massacre

Mowla Bluff Massacre monument

Geegully Creek
Mowla Bluff, WA

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/60844-mowla-bluff-massacre

Peter Chidlow and Edward Jones memorial tablet

Gillet Road and Buckland Street
Northam, WA

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/60911-peter-chidlow-and-edward-jones

Battle of Pinjarra Memorial Park

McLarty Road
Pinjarra, WA

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/conflict/indigenous/display/61063-pinjarra-massacre-site

Sturt Creek massacre site memorial

Kimberleys, Western Australia
Link here to story about the Sturt Creek massacre and the memorial descendants erected in 2011: http://theconversation.com/oral-testimony-of-an-aboriginal-massacre-now-supported-by-scientific-evidence-85526

Yagan Memorial Park

West Swan Road and Great Northern Highway
Belhus, WA

Link here: http://monumentaustralia.org.au/themes/people/indigenous/display/93059-yagan-memorial-park

First compiled by Jane Morrison July–August 2015, updated 25 July 2016, 24 October 2016,
7 November 2017