Bibliography

Australian Frontier Conflicts:
Sources Listed by Australian States and Territories

Below are some of the main sources of information about Australian frontier conflicts and related subjects such as genocide and race relations, as they exist in 2018. This bibliography is updated from time to time. Check sources such the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies catalogues and the National Library of Australia’s Trove database at http://www.trove.nla.gov.au for availability of these and other material on Australian frontier conflicts.

Readers should be aware that ‘the historical record’ is that of the invading colonists and is often blatantly racist. The terminology used and the descriptions of events and of people can be very upsetting. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander versions of events were not recorded in the early days of colonial Australia, when Aboriginal people were not permitted to give evidence in court. It is only since First Peoples’ oral history and the work of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander historians on colonial frontier conflict, depicted through art and other media as well as in articles, books, exhibitions, demonstrations and other formats such as online channels, has been published, that First Peoples’ voices about colonial history have begun to be heard.

You can also find more resources on Australian frontier conflicts under Journal Articles, Videos, and Maps.

Australia (General)

Action for World Development 1999, Aboriginal Heroes of the Resistance: From Pemulwuy to Mabo, Action for World Development, Surry Hills, New South Wales

Australian War Memorial, Military History Section, Australians at War: Colonial Period, 1788–1901 [ND] at https://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/colonial/, accessed on 24 October 2016. ‘One role of the troops was to guard Australia against external attack, but their main job was to maintain civil order, particularly against convict uprisings, and to suppress the resistance of the Aboriginal population to British settlement.’ Be aware that this chapter of the Australian War Memorial’s online Australians at War series does not explain the frontier wars period in any detail, such as the deliberate colonial military actions against Aboriginal people in  the colonies of New South Wales, Tasmania (Van Diemen’s Land), Victoria (when still part of New South Wales) and Western Australia. Nor does the Australian War Memorial’s chapter on the Colonial Period include any mention of the role of colonial police forces in frontier conflicts, or of how, when these forces were set up, they often recruited ex-military to their ranks.

Banner, Stuart, ‘Why Terra Nullius? Anthropology and Property Law in Early Australia’, Law and History Review, Volume 23, Issue 1, Spring 2005, pp. 95–131

Barker, Bryce, ‘Massacre, Frontier Conflict and Australian Archaeology’, Australian Archaeology, Number 64, June 2007, pp. 9–14

Brodie, Nick 2016, 1787: The Lost Chapters of Australia’s Beginnings, Hardie Grant Books, Richmond, Victoria

Cadet-James, Yvonne, Robert Andrew James, Sue McGinty, Russell McGregor 2017, Gagu Badhun: People of the Valley of Lagoons, AIATSIS Research Publications an Imprint of Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra

Connor, John 2002, The Australian Frontier Wars 1788–1838, University of New South Wales Press

Grey, JA 1999, ‘The Military and the Frontier, 1788–1901,’ in Jeffrey Grey, A Military History of Australia, Cambridge University Press, New York

Kerkhove, Ray 2015, ‘Aboriginal Smoke Signalling and Signalling Hills in Resistance Warfare’, Honest History

Litster, Mirani, The Potential Contribution of Archaeology to Australian Frontier Studies, A Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Bachelor of Archaeology (Honours), Department of Archaeology, School of Humanities, Flinders University, 16 June 2006. Available online at:
http://www.flinders.edu.au/ehl/fms/archaeology_files/dig_library/theses/MiraniLitster2006.pdf

Litster, Mirani and Lynley A Wallis, ‘Looking for the proverbial needle? The archaeology of Australian frontier massacres,’ Archaeology in Oceania, Vol. 46, No. 3, (October 2011), pp. 105–117. Available from ANU Open Access, see https://digitalcollections.anu.edu.au/handle/1885/20865 for an abstract.

Monticone, Judith 1999, Healing the Land, Vol.1, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory

Reynolds, Henry 1977 [?], ‘Aboriginal-European Contact History: problems and issues’, paper delivered at the 47th ANZAAS Congress, Hobart, 1976

Reynolds, Henry 1981, The Other Side of the Frontier: An interpretation of the Aboriginal response to the invasion and settlement of Australia, History Department, James Cook University, Townsville

Reynolds, Henry 1984, ‘The breaking of the great Australian silence: Aborigines in Australian historiography 1955–1983’, Trevor Reese Memorial Lecture, University of London, Institute of Commonwealth Studies, Australian Studies Centre, 30 January 1984

Reynolds, Henry 1987, Frontier: Aborigines, settlers and land, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, Sydney, New South Wales

Reynolds, Henry comp. 1989, Dispossession: Black Australians and white invaders, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, Sydney, New South Wales

Reynolds, Henry 1990, With the White People: The crucial role of Aborigines in the exploration and development of Australia, Penguin, Ringwood, Victoria

Reynolds, Henry 1992, The Law of the Land, 2nd Edition, Penguin Books, Ringwood, Victoria

Reynolds, Henry 1998, This Whispering in Our Hearts, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, Sydney, New South Wales

Reynolds, Henry 1999, Why Weren’t We Told?: a personal search for the truth about our history, Viking, Penguin Books, Ringwood, Victoria

Reynolds, Henry 2000, Black Pioneers, (Revision of With the White People, 1990), Penguin, Ringwood, Victoria

Reynolds, Henry 2001, An Indelible Stain?: the question of genocide in Australia’s history, Viking, Penguin Books, Ringwood, Victoria

Reynolds, Henry 2013, The Forgotten War, NewSouth Publishing, University of New South Wales

Tatz, Colin, Genocide in Australia, Research Discussion Paper, No. 8, 1999, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra at: https://aiatsis.gov.au/sites/default/files/products/discussion_paper/tatzc-dp08-genocide-in-australia.pdf

Australian Capital Territory (ACT)

The Australian Capital Territory (ACT) was part of New South Wales until transferred to the Commonwealth Government of Australia in 1911. At least one known conflict between Aboriginal people and colonists took place in what is now the ACT in 1834 near today’s Acton Peninsula. This is now the site of the National Museum of Australia and the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. Recorded conflicts between colonists and Aboriginal people took place at Lake Bathurst and at Lake George near today’s Canberra. Other such conflicts are believed to have taken place in the Tinderrys south-east of Canberra and on the Monaro. Research into what happened in the Canberra and surrounding districts during the colonial frontier period is ongoing.

Avery, Steven 1994, Aboriginal and European Encounter in the Canberra Region: a question of change and the archaeological record, available online at: http://www.kunama.com/custlaw/CUSTIND.HTM

Gillespie, Lyall L 1984, Aborigines of the Canberra Region, Canberra

Jackson-Nakano, Ann 2001, The Kamberri: A History of Aboriginal Families in the ACT and Surrounds, Weereewaa History Series Volume 1, Aboriginal History Monograph 8, Canberra

New South Wales (NSW)

Australian, Saturday 16 September 1826, p. 2, report of conflict in the Hunter region between Aboriginal people and colonists

Barber, Laurie E 2014, Massacre at Myall Creek, Sid Harta Publishers, Glen Waverly, Victoria

‘The Bathurst Massacres’, Treaty Republic, at http://treatyrepublic.net/content/bathurst-massacres

Beckett, Jeremy and Tamsin Donaldson with Bradley Steadman and Steve Meredith 2003,Yapapunakirri: Let’s Track Back, The Aboriginal World Around Mount Grenfell, written for the Office of the Registrar, Aboriginal Land Rights Act 1983 (NSW), p. 25

Blomfield, Geoffrey 1986, Baal Belbora, the end of the dancing: The agony of the British invasion of the ancient people of the Three Rivers–the Hastings, the Manning and the Macleay in New South Wales, Alternative Publishing Co-operative

‘Bluff Rock’, Tenterfield Shire Council at http://www.tenterfield.nsw.gov.au/community-services-tenterfield/aboriginal-community-tenterfield/1158015-bluff-rock, accessed on 9 April 2015

Butlin, Noel 1983, Our Original Aggression: Aboriginal Populations of Southeastern Australia 1788–1850, North Sydney

Campbell, Judith 2002, Invisible Invaders: Smallpox and Other Diseases in Aboriginal Australia 1780–1880, Melbourne University Press

Coe, Mary 1998, Windradyne: A Wiradjuri Koorie, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra

Connor, John 2002, The Australian Frontier Wars 1788–1838, University of New South Wales Press

Davis-Hurst, Patricia 2010, Sunrise Station revisited, Taree, NSW

Department of Environment and Climate Change, ‘Frontier massacres and the wall of silence,’ In Sad But Loving Memory: Aboriginal Burials of the Last 200 Years in New South Wales, 1998, Reprinted 2007, p. 17 in http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/cultureheritage/0701SadButLoving.pdf

Flannery, Tim ed. 2009, Watkin Tench 1788, Text Publishing, Melbourne

Gipps, John, Every Inch a Governor: Sir George Gipps, Governor of New South Wales 1838–46, Hobson’s Bay Publishing, 1996

Golder, Hillary, ‘Evidence and Accountability: Creating and Using the Public Record’, The Annual History Lecture, History Council of New South Wales, Sydney, 2006.

Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, Australian Aborigines Copies or extracts of despatches relative to the massacres of various Aborigines in Australia, in the year 1838, and respecting the trial of their murderers [electronic resource]. Available on Proquest through major libraries at HTTP://parlipapers.proquest.com/parlipapers/docview/t70.d75.1839-018428; also at: http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-52764244/view#page/n1/mode/1up

Harman, Kristyn 2012, Aboriginal Convicts: Australian, Khoisan and Maori Exiles, UNSW Press, Sydney

Jackson-Nakano, Ann 2001, The Kamberri: A History of Aboriginal Families in the ACT and Surrounds, Weereewaa History Series Volume 1, Aboriginal History Monograph 8, Canberra

Karskens, Grace, 2015, ‘Appin Massacre’, Dictionary of Sydney at http://dictionaryofsydney.org/entry/appin_massacre

Lim, Jonathan 2016, The Battle of Parramatta 21 to 22 March 1797, Australian Scholarly Publishing Pty Ltd, North Melbourne, Victoria

Logan, William and Keir Reeves eds c. 2009, Places of pain and shame: dealing with ‘difficult heritage’, Routledge, Milton Park, Abington, Oxon; New York. (Part I Massacre and genocide sites; Part 5 The Myall Creek Memorial: history, identity and reconciliation).

Lydon, Jane, ‘”no moral doubt …”: Aboriginal evidence and the Kangaroo Creek poisoning, 1847–1849,’ Aboriginal History, 1996, 20, pp. 151–175 at http://press-files.anu.edu.au/downloads/press/p72561/pdf/article0714.pdf

Macklin, Robert 2016, Hamilton Hume: Our Greatest Explorer, Hachette Australia, Sydney, New South Wales

‘Massacre at Appin in 1816’, Campbelltown and Airds Historical Society Inc. at http://www.cahs.com.au/massacre-at-appin-1816.html, accessed on 9 April 2015

Mear, Craig, ‘The origin of the smallpox outbreak in Sydney in 1789’, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 94, Part 1, June 2008, pp. 1–22, available on the Treaty Republic website at http://treatyrepublic.net/node/651

Medcalf, Rory c. 1989, 1993, Rivers of blood: massacres of Northern Rivers Aborigines and their resistance to the white occupation 1838–1870, Lismore, New South Wales

Millis, Roger 1992, Waterloo Creek: the Australia Day Massacre of 1838, George Gipps and the Conquest of New South Wales, McPhee Gribble, Ringwood, Victoria

‘The Myall Creek Massacre,’ at http://www.myallcreekmassacre.com/Myall_Creek_Massacre/Home.html, accessed on 9 April 2015

Myall Creek Massacre (1838), Creative Spirits at: http://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/myall-creek-massacre-1838, accessed on 9 April 2015

‘The 1838 Myall Creek Massacre Story’, Friends of Myall Creek, at http://www.myallcreek.info/index.php/massacre-story, accessed on 14 May 2017

National Parks and Wildlife Service, New South Wales, Bush Matters, Summer 2003, p. 8

Organ, Michael comp. 1990, A Documentary History of the Illawarra and South Coast Aborigines 1770–1850, Aboriginal Education Unit, Wollongong University

Organ, Michael and AP Doyle 1995, Historical Records of the Illawarra Region of New South Wales, Australia 1770–1855: A Chronological Guide to Sources and Events

O’Rourke, Michael 2009, Passages to the North-west Plains: The Colonial discovery and Occupation of East-Central New South Wales, 1816–26, Canberra. Covers exploration by Oxley, Howe, Lawson and Cunningham and includes an extended discussion of the armed conflict between Aborigines, settlers and police in the Hunter Valley, 1825–26.

Poulter, Jim 2016, The Dust of the Mindeye: The use of biological warfare in the conquest of Australia, self-published

Powell, Michael 2016, Musquito Brutality and Exile–Aboriginal Resistance in New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land, Fullers Bookshop

Read, Peter 1988, A Hundred Years War: the Wiradjuri people and the state, Australian National University Press, Canberra

Salisbury, T and PJ Gresser 1971, Windradyne of the Wiradjuri: Martial Law at Bathurst in 1824, Wentworth Books Pty Ltd, Surry Hills, Sydney

Schlunke, Katrina A 2005, Bluff Rock: Autobiography of a Massacre, Curtin University Books, Western Australia

Somerville, Margaret and Tony Perkins 2010, Singing the Coast, Aboriginal Studies Press

Stewart, Lyn 2015, Blood Revenge: Murder on the Hawkesbury, Rosenberg Publishing

Stubbins, Ted and Paulette Smith 2001, The Myall Creek massacre: its history, its memorial and the opening ceremony, Myall Creek Memorial Committee, Bingara, New South Wales

Summons, John 1993, Massacre at Myall Creek, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne. A play about the Myall Creek Massacre.

Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser, Saturday 4 May 1816, p. 1, Governor Macquarie’s Proclamation against Aboriginal people

‘Tabulam’s First Settler: The Tragic End of Peter Pagan,’ Brisbane Courier, Tuesday 13 March, 1928, p. 17

Tedeschi, Mark, ‘Justice evaded, justice denied’, Inside History, May–June 2014, pp. 40–45. A re-examination of the trials of those responsible for the 1838 Myall Creek massacre, New South Wales. Part 1 in a two-part series.

Tedeschi, Mark, ‘We remember them’, Inside History, July–August 2014, pp. 46–51. Part 2 of a re-examination of the trial of those responsible for the 1838 Myall Creek massacre, New South Wales.

Tedeschi, Mark 2016, Murder at Myall Creek: The trial that defined a nation, Simon & Schuster (Australia) Pty Limited, Cammeray, New South Wales

Thomas, Liz 2013, ‘Aboriginal history of the Coffs Harbour Region’, Coffs Harbour City Library

Turbet, Peter 2011, The First Frontier: the Occupation of the Sydney Region 1788–1816, Rosenberg

Warren, Chris, ‘Was Sydney’s smallpox outbreak in 1789 an act of biological warfare against Aboriginal tribes?’, ‘Ockham’s Razor’, ABC Radio National, 17 April 2014 at http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/ockhamsrazor/was-sydneys-smallpox-outbreak-an-act-of-biological-warfare/5395050

Wikipedia, ‘New South Wales Police Force’ at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_South_Wales_Police_Force

Northern Territory (NT)

Albert, Trish 2009, Remembering Coniston, Rigby/Pearson Education, Port Melbourne, Victoria. Published in collaboration with the National Museum of Australia.

Coniston: one of the greatest injustices of contact history [videorecording] about the massacre at Coniston Station in 1928. A film by David Batty and Francis Jupurruria Kelly, c. 2012. Produced with the assistance of the Indigenous Department of Screen Australia; in association with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and with the assistance of Screen Territory. Dialogue in Walpiri with English subtitles.

Erika Charola and Felicty Meakins eds 2016, Yijarni: True Stories From Gurindji Country, Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Canberra

Kelly, Roma and Nicholas Evans, ‘The McKenze [sic] massacre on Bentink Island’, Aboriginal History, Volume 9, 1985, pp. 44–52. Abstract at: http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=057625501124643;res=IELIND, accessed on 9 April 2015

Lewis, Darrell 2012, A Wild History: Life and Death on the Victoria River Frontier, Monash University Publishing, Melbourne

McCarthy, Teresa 2008, ‘The Attack at Angkwerl (Anna’s Reservoir) August 1884’, information collated for the Northern Territory Library’s Anmatyerr community history project.

Nettelbeck, Amanda and Robert Foster 2007, In the Name of the Law: William Willshire and the Policing of the Australian Frontier, Wakefield Press

‘Northern and Western Australia, 1824–1834’ in John Connor 2002, The Australian Frontier Wars 1788–1838, University of New South Wales Press

Read, Peter, ‘Murder, Revenge and Reconciliation on the North Eastern Frontier,’ History Australia, Volume 4, Number 1, 2007, Monash University Press, pp. 0.91–09.15. A copy of this article is available via http://journals.publishing.monash.edu/ojs/index.php/ha/article/viewFile/348/360, accessed on 9 April 2015

Roberts, Tony 2005, Frontier Justice: A History of the Gulf Country to 1900, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane

Roberts, Tony, ‘The brutal truth: what happened in the Gulf Country,’ The Monthly, November (2009), pp. 15–17. A link to the article is at: http://www.themonthly.com.au/issue/2009/november/1330478364/tony-roberts/brutal-truth, accessed on 9 April 2015. Describes massacres in the Gulf Country of the Northern Territory.

Rose, Deborah Bird 1991, Hidden Histories: Black Stories from Victoria River Downs, Humbert River and Wave Hill Stations, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra

The German Missionaries in Australia (involvement in the Daly River area, NT) Available online at: http://missionaries.griffith.edu.au/mission/daly-river-1886-1899, accessed 7 April 2016

Queensland

Banivanua Mar, Tracey, ‘Settler-colonial landscapes and narratives of possession’, Arena Journal, no. 37/38 (2012), pp. [176]–198. Abstract at: http://www.academia.edu/1934090/Settler-Colonial_Landscapes_and_Narratives_of_Possession, accessed on 9 April 2015. The paper refers to Kalkadoon/Mitakoodi, Queensland massacre history.

Bottoms, Timothy 2013, Conspiracy of Silence: Queensland’s frontier killing times, Allen & Unwin

Collins, Patrick 2002, Goodbye Bussamarai: the Mandanjanji land war, Southern Queensland 1842–1852, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia

Collins, Patrick J, ‘Richard, Frederick and Robert: Three Militant Walkers on the Maranoa Frontier,’ Queensland History Journal, Vol. 20, No. 10, May 2009, pp. 457–519

Connors, Libby, ‘Witness to frontier violence: an Aboriginal boy before the Supreme Court,’ Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 42, No. 2 (June 2001), pp. 230–243. Abstract at: http://eprints.usq.edu.au/19452/, accessed on 9 April 2015

Connors, Libby 2015, Warrior: A Legendary Leader’s Dramatic Life and Violent Death on the Colonial Frontier, Allen & Unwin

Copland, Mark 1999, ‘The Native Police at Callandoon–A Blueprint For Forced Assimilation?’, paper presented at the History of Crime, Policing and Punishment Conference, convened by the Australian Institute of Criminology and Charles Sturt University, Canberra 9–10 December 1999.

Dawson, Christopher 2009, The Hanging at the Brisbane Windmill, Inside History (Boggo Road Historical Society), Fairfield Gardens, Queensland

Evans, Raymond, Kay Saunders and Kathryn Cronin, 1988, Race Relations in Queensland: a history of exclusion, exploitation and extermination, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Brisbane. First published as: Exclusion, exploitation and extermination: race relations in colonial Queensland, Australia and New Zealand Book Co., 1975

Evans, Raymond and Ørsted-Jensen, Robert, ‘I Cannot Say the Numbers that Were Killed’: Assessing Violent Mortality on the Queensland Frontier (2014). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2467836 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2467836, accessed on 9 August 2014.

Finnane, Mark and Jonathan Richards, ‘”You’ll get nothing out of it”? The Inquest, Police and Aboriginal Deaths in Colonial Queensland’, Australian Historical Studies, no. 123, April 2004, pp. 84–105 at http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t786314679~db=all

French, Maurice 1989, Conflict on the Condamine: Aborigines and the European Invasion, Darling Downs Institute Press, Toowoomba, Queensland

Gibbons, Ray 2015, ‘Deconstructing colonial myths: the massacre at Murdering Creek’, Academia online: http://www.academia.edu/12361316/Deconstructing_colonial_myths_the_massacre_at_Murdering_Creek (Murdering Creek is on the southern side of Lake Wyeba near Noosa, south-east Queensland)

Kerkhove, Ray, ‘A different mode of war? Aboriginal “guerilla tactics” in defining the “Black War” of Southern Queensland 1843–1855’. Paper presented at the AHA Conference, University of Queensland, Brisbane July 2014. Copy available at: http://sovereignunion.mobi/pdf/2016/Indigenous-Resistance-Wars-KerkhoveFINALa-2.pdf

Kerkhove, Ray, ‘Barriers and Bastions: Fortified Frontiers and white and black tactics’, paper presented at ‘Our Shared History: resistance and reconciliation’, Central Queensland University seminar, Noosa, Queensland, 11 June 2015, available at: http://honesthistorynet.au/wp/wp-content/uploads/Bastions-and-barriers2A.pdf

Kerkhove, Ray 2015, The Battle of One Tree Hill and Its Context, Educational Resource for Jagan Daran

Kerkove, Ray 2016, The Battle of One Tree Hill and Its Aftermath, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/battle-of-one-tree-hill-and-its-aftermath/, a section in Mapping Frontier Conflicts in South-East Queensland, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/

Kerkove, Ray 2016, Breakfast Creek Camp Raids 1840–1860, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/breakfast-creek-camp-raids-1840s-1860s/, a section in Mapping Frontier Conflicts in South-East Queensland, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/

Kerkove, Ray 2016, Brisbane Northside 1840–1850, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/brisbane-northside-1840s-1850s/, a section in Mapping Frontier Conflicts in South-East Queensland, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/

Kerkove, Ray 2016, Corn Fields Raids 1827–1828, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/corn-fields-raids-1827-1828/, a section in Mapping Frontier Conflicts in South-East Queensland, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/

Kerkove, Ray 2016, Hideouts and Bastions of Resistance, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/hide-outs-and-bastions-of-resistance/, a section in Mapping Frontier Conflicts in South-East Queensland, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/

Kerkhove, Ray 2016, Mapping Frontier Conflicts in South-East Queensland, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/

Kerkhove, Ray 2016, Multuggerah and Multuggerah Way, commissioned by Jagera Daran, distributed to Toowoomba City Council for the 2nd Annual Commemoration of the Battle of One Tree Hill

Kerkove, Ray 2016, Pastoral Settlement as Invasion: Invasion By Default, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/pattern-of-pastarol-settlement/, a section in Mapping Frontier Conflicts in South-East Queensland, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/

Kerkove, Ray 2016, Pine Rivers/Sandgate Area 1850–1860, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/pine-riverssandgate-area-1850s-1860s/, a section in Mapping Frontier Conflicts in South-East Queensland, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/

Kerkove, Ray 2016, Resistance and Areas Temporarily Reclaimed: Reclaiming the Land, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/reclaiming-the-land/, a section in Mapping Frontier Conflicts in South-East Queensland, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/

Kerkove, Ray 2016, Rosewood Scrub 1843–1848, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/rosewood-scrub-1843-1848/, a section in Mapping Frontier Conflicts in South-East Queensland, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/

Kerkove, Ray 2016, Stradbroke and Moreton Islands 1832–1833, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/stradbroke-and-moreton-islands-1832-1833/, a section in Mapping Frontier Conflicts in South-East Queensland, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/

Kerkove, Ray 2016, Traditional Warfare and Tribal Alliances, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/traditional-warfare-and-tribal-alliances/, a section in Mapping Frontier Conflicts in South-East Queensland, online at: https://frontierbattle.wordpress.com/

Kerkhove, Ray, ‘Tribal alliances with broader agendas? Aboriginal resistance in southern Queensland’s “Black War”‘, Cosmospolitan and Civil Societies, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2014, University of Technology, Sydney athttp://epress.lib.uts.edu.au/journals/index.php/mcs/article/view/4218/4472

Lergessner, James G 2007, Death Pudding: The Kilcoy Massacre, James G Lergessner, Woorim, Queensland

Mackenzie-Smith, John, ‘The Kilcoy poisonings revisited’ [online], Queensland History Journal, Vol. 20, No. 11, August 2009, pp. 593–605.  Availability: https://search-informit-com-au.rp.nla.gov.au/documentSummary;dn=200909223;res=IELAPA ISSN: 1836-5477. [cited 05 Jan 18].

Ørsten-Jensen, Robert 2011, Frontier history revisited: colonial Queensland and the ‘history war’, Lux Mundi Publishing, Coorparoo, Queensland

Reynolds, Henry 2003, North of Capricorn: the untold story of Australia’s north, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest, Sydney, New South Wales

Richards, Jonathan 2008, The Secret War: A True History of Queensland’s Native Police, University of Queensland Press. This book includes a summary of the Native Police in New South Wales, the Victorian Native Police Corps, Aboriginal police (and trackers) in South Australia and the Northern Territory. the book briefly mentions the question of a Native Police unit in Western Australia.

Richards, Jonathan, ‘”Many were killed from falling over the cliffs”: The naming of Mount Wheeler, Central Queensland’, chapter 8 in Ian D Clark, Luise Hercus and Laura Kostansk eds, Indigenous and Minority Placenames: Australian and International Perspectives, ANU Press and Aboriginal History Inc., 2014, pp. 147–161

‘The History of the Native Mounted Police in Queensland’, (reprinted with the permission of the Queensland Police Department), Generation, Quarterly Journal of the Genealogical Society of Queensland Inc., Vol. 10, No. 1, September 1987, pp. 7–12.

‘The Wills Tragedy’, The Sydney Morning Herald, Saturday 16 November 1861, p. 7

Uhr, Frank, ‘The Raid of the Aborigines: brief overview and background to the poem’, Journal of the Royal Historical Society of Queensland, Vol. 17, No. 12, (November 2001), pp. 559–561. Availability: https://search-informit-com-au.rp.nla.gov.au/documentSummary;dn=200116747;res=IELAPA ISSN: 1447-1345. [cited 05 Jan 18].

Uhr, Frank, ‘September 12, 1843; The Battle of One Tree Hill–A turning point in the conquest of Moreton Bay’, Journal of the Royal Historical Society of Queensland, Vol. 18, No. 6, May 2003, pp. 241–255. Availability: https://search-informit-com-au.rp.nla.gov.au/documentSummary;dn=200305667;res=IELAPA ISSN: 1447-1345. [cited 05 Jan 18].

South Australia (SA)

Flinders Ranges Research, Kangaroo Island, at http://www.southaustralianhistory.com.au/ki.htm

Foster, Robert, ‘Don’t mention the war: frontier violence and the language of concealment’, History Australia, Vol. 6, No. 3, (December 2009), pp. 68.1–68.15, Abstract at: http://journals.publishing.monash.edu/ojs/index.php/ha/article/view/ha090068 accessed on 9 April 2015

Foster, Robert and Amanda Nettelbeck 2012, Out of the Silence: the History and Memory of South Australia’s Frontier Wars, Wakefield Press, Kent Town, South Australia

Foster, Robert, Rick Hosking and Amanda Nettelbeck 2001, Fatal Collisions: The South Australian frontier and the violence of memory, Wakefield Press, Kent Town, South Australia

Lendrum, SD, ‘The “Coorong Massacre”: Martial Law and the Aborigines at First Settlement,’ (1977) 6 Adelaide Law Review, pp. 26–43. A link to the paper is at: http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/AdelLawRw/1977/2.html, accessed on 9 April 2015

Nettelbeck, Amanda and Robert Foster 2007, In the Name of the Law: William Willshire and the Policing of the Australian Frontier, Wakefield Press, Kent Town, South Australia

State Library of South Australia, The Manning Index of South Australian History, Aboriginal Australians at http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/manning/sa/aborigines/1858.htm

State Library of South Australia, “Friction between overlanders and Australian Aboriginals” in ‘The Overlanders’ at http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/murray/content/europeanDiscovery/overlandersIntro.htm

Wikipedia, History of South Australia at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_South_Australia

Tasmania (TAS)

Brodie, Nick 2017, The Vandemonian War: The Secret History of Britain’s Tasmanian invasion, Hardie Grant Books

Clements, Nicholas 2014, The Black War: Fear, Sex and Resistance in Tasmania, Queensland University Press

Clements, Nick, ‘Army of sufferers’: the experience of Tasmania’s black line, Journal of Australian Studies, Vol. 37 no. 1 (March 2013), pp. 19–33. Abstract at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14443058.2012.754782?journalCode=rjau20#preview, accessed on 9 April 2015

Cox, Robert 2010, Baptised in blood: the shocking secret history of Sorell, Wellington Bridge Press, North Hobart, Tasmania

Harman, Kristyn 2012, Aboriginal Convicts: Australian, Khoisan and Maori Exiles, UNSW Press, Sydney

Johnson, Murray and Ian McFarlane 2015, Van Diemen’s Land: An Aboriginal History, New South Publishing

Johnston, Anna and Mitchell Rolls eds 2012, Reading Robinson: Companion Essays to Friendly Mission, Monash University Publishing, Clayton, Victoria

Powell, Michael 2016, Musquito Brutality and Exile–Aboriginal Resistance in New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land, Fullers Bookshop

Refshauge, WF, ‘The swivel gun massacre’, Tasmanian Historical Research Association, Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 57, No. 1, (April 2010), pp. 40–44

Refshauge, WF 2016, The Killing at Risdon Cove, Australian Scholarly Publishing, Melbourne, Victoria

Reynolds, Henry 1995, 2004, Fate of a Free People: the classic account of the Tasmanian Wars, Penguin

Reynolds, Henry 2012, A History of Tasmania, Cambridge University Press

Robinson, George Augustus 2008, Friendly Mission: The Tasmanian Journals and Papers of George Augustus Robinson, 1829–1834, edited by NJB Plomley. First published 1966.

Ryan, Lyndall 2012, Tasmanian Aborigines: A history since 1803, Allen & Unwin

Ryan, Lyndall, ‘The Black Line in Van Diemen’s Land: success or failure?’, Journal of Australian Studies, Vol. 37, no. 1 (March 2013), pp. 3–18. A first page preview of the article is at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14443058.2012.755744#preview, accessed on 9 April 2015

Turnbull, Clive 1948, Black War: The extermination of the Tasmanian Aborigines, FW Cheshire, Sydney

‘Van Diemen’s Land, 1826–1831,’ in John Connor 2002, The Australian Frontier Wars 1788–1838, University of New South Wales Press, pp. 84–101

Victoria (VIC)

Attwood, Bain 2017, The Good Country: The Djadja Wurrung, The Settlers and The Protectorate, Monash University Publishing, Melbourne

Bride, Thomas Francis, Letters from Victorian Pioneers: A Series of Papers on the Early Occupation of Colony, the Aborigines, etc., published for the Trustees of the Public Library, Melbourne, 1898(9) available at https://archive.org/stream/lettersfromvicto00publiala#page/n5/mode/2up

Cannon, Michael 1990, Who Killed the Koories? William Heinemann Australia, Melbourne

Clark, Ian D 1995, Scars in the Landscape: A Register of Massacre Sites in Western Victoria, 1803–1859, Aboriginal Studies Press

Clark, Ian D, ‘The Convincing Ground Aboriginal massacre at Portland Bay, Victoria: fact or fiction?’, Aboriginal History, Vo. 35 (2011), pp. 79–109 at: http://press.anu.edu.au/apps/bookworm/view/Aboriginal+History+Volume+35,+2011/7171/Text/G04%20Clark.html, accessed on 9 April 2015

Connor, Michael, ‘Convincing Ground: a history,’ Quadrant online, 23 March 2009 at: http://quadrant.org.au/opinion/history-wars/2007/12/convincing-ground-a-history-2/, accessed on 9 April 2015 (An alternative view of the historical evidence relating to the Convincing Ground massacre).

Critchett, Jan 1990, A Distant Field of Murder: Western District Frontiers, 1834–1848, Melbourne University Press

Fels, Marie Hansen 2011, I succeeded once: the Aboriginal Protectorate on the Mornington Peninsula, 1839–1840, ANU E Press, ACT

Flyn, Cal 2016, Thicker Than Water: A Memoir of Family, Secrets, Guilt and History, Fourth Estate, Harper CollinsPublishers Australia

Gardner, Peter 1987, Our Founding Murdering Father: Angus McMillan and the Kurnai Tribe of Gippsland 1839–1865, self-published.

Gardner, Peter 1987, Through Foreign Eyes, CGS, Churchill

Gardner, Peter 1993, Gippsland Massacres: The destruction of the Kurnai Tribes 1800–1860, Ngarak Press, Ensay, Victoria

Grant, Lachlan, ‘”The Fighting Gunditjmara”––Indigenous people have fought for country and for nation, from frontier wars to world wars’, Wartime: Official Magazine of the Australian War Memorial, Issue 76, Spring 2016, pp. 18–24. The article is available for download on academia.edu at: https://www.academia.edu/28806593/The_fighting_Gunditjmara_Indigenous_people_have_fought_for_country_and_for_nation_from_frontier_wars_to_world_wars

The article includes information about conflicts over land and resources between Europeans and Aborigines from the 1830s, particularly the Eumeralla War fought in western Victoria in the 1840s between Europeans and the Gunditjmara Aboriginal people who were fighting for their country and survival.

Land, Clare 2014, Tunnerminnerwait and Maulboyheenner: the involvement of Aboriginal people from Tasmania in key events of early Melbourne, City of Melbourne

Lay, John 2016, Boodgery: First Contact in the Mid Murray 1820–1860, Not So Shabby Books

‘The Liverpool Plains and Port Phillip Districts, 1838’, in John Connor 2002, The Australian Frontier Wars 1788–1838, University of New South Wales Press, pp. 102–122

Macklin, Robert 2016, Hamilton Hume: Our Greatest Explorer, Hachette Australia, Sydney, New South Wales

Martin, Davey 2011, Essays on the Western District frontier 1835–45: eye-opening studies on secrets kept since Victoria’s frontier days: about our Aborigines, our pioneers and our unknown convicts, PenFolk Publishing, Blackburn, Victoria

Munro, Chris, ‘Victoria’s silent shame’, footprints, Tracker, Vol 3, Issue 24, July 2013, pp. 48–49 (article about the massacres of the Kurnai of Victoria)

Niewøjt, Lawrence, ‘The massacre of the Gadubanud at Aire River,’ Victorian Historical Journal, Vol. 81, No. 2 (November 2010), pp. 193–213. Abstract at: http://aavexternal.firstsoftwaresolutions.com/fullRecord.jsp?recnoListAttr=recnoList&recno=7233, accessed on 9 April 2015

Pascoe, Bruce 2007, Convincing Ground: Learning to fall in love with your country, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra

Pascoe, Bruce 2014, Dark Emu–Black Seeds: agriculture or accident? Magabala Books, Broome, Western Australia

Randell, JO 1982, Pastoral Settlement in Northern Victoria. Volume 2, The Campaspe District, Chandos, Burwood, Victoria

Ryan, Lyndall, ‘Settler massacres on the Port Phillip frontier, 1836–1851’, Journal of Australian Studies, Vol. 34, No. 3 (September 2010), pp. 257–273. A description of the article is at: http://novaprd-lb.newcastle.edu.au/vital/access/manager/Repository/uon:10799;jsessionid=6EB57A37552233D4E4ADC08A97B6855D?f0=sm_subject%3A%22settlers%22, accessed on 9 April 2015

Tully, John 1997, Djaja Wurrung Language of Central Victoria, Dunnolly, Victoria. (Includes some conflicts on pages 6 to 9.)

Woiwod, Mick 2012, Birrarung database [CD-ROM], Tarcoola Press, Kangaroo Ground, Victoria

Woiwod, Mick 2017, Barak vs The Black Hats of Melbourne: The untold story of how the Black Hats destroyed Coranderrk, Victoria

Western Australia (WA)

Adams, Simon 2009, The Unforgiving Rope, UWA Publishing, Crawley, Western Australia (for example, Chapters 1, 3, 5, 7, 12)

Allbrook, Malcolm 2009, Hidden histories, conflict, massacres and the colonisation of the Pilbara: final report to Wangka May Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre [and] Summary Report. In three volumes and CD-ROM

Arnold, Murray 2015, A Journey Travelled: Aboriginal-European relations at Albany and the surrounding region from first contact to 1926, UWA Publishing, Crawley, Western Australia

Austen, Tom 1998, A Cry in the Wind: Conflict in Western Australia, 1829–1929, Darlington Publishing Group, Western Australia

Bridge, Peter J 2013, Bang-em-all: bush life, and death on the Gascoyne: Bangemall and the Thomas River Police Station, Hesperian Press, Victoria Park, Western Australia. (Violence between ‘settlers’ and Aboriginal people in the south Pilbara).

Carter, Bevan and Lynda Nutter 2005, Ngungah Land: Records of Invasion and Theft of Aboriginal Land on the Swan River 1829–1850, Black History Series, Swan Valley Ngungah Community, Guildford, Western Australia

Charnley, W Campbell 2010, Pigeon, Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia

‘Northern and Western Australia, 1824–1834’ in John Connor 2002, The Australian Frontier Wars 1788–1838, University of New South Wales Press

Contos, Natalie, Theo A Kearing, Len Collard and Dave Palmer 1998, Pinjarra Massacre Site Research and Development Project: Report for Stage 1, Murray Districts Aboriginal Association, Western Australia

Field, Jennifer Joi 2008, Written in the Land: The Life of Queenie McKenzie, Melbourne Books, Victoria

Forrest, Roni Gray 2004, Kukenarup–Two Stories: A Report on Historical Accounts of a Massacre Site at Cocanarup near Ravensthorp, WA, Albany, funded by the Department of Indigenous Affairs

Green, Neville 1984, Broken Spears: Aborigines and Europeans in the Southwest of Australia, Focus Education Services, Perth, Western Australia

Green, Neville 1995, The Forrest River Massacres, Fremantle Arts Centre Press, Fremantle, Western Australia

Green, Neville, ‘Dilemmas, dramas and damnation in contested history, Studies in Australian History, No. 23 (2010), pp. [203]–214. Abstract at: http://journals.publishing.monash.edu/ojs/index.php/ha/article/view/ha090068, accessed on 9 April 2015. Reviews the evidence for the Forrest River massacre(s) in Western Australia.

Greenwood, Mark 2013, Jandamarra, Allen & Unwin, Crow’s Nest, New South Wales

Gribble, JB 1905, Dark Deeds in a Sunny Land, or Blacks and Whites in North-West Australia, published by the Daily News, Perth, republished by the University of Western Australia Press and the Institute of Applied Aboriginal Studies, Western Australian College of Advanced Education, 1987

Moran, Kevin 2011, Sand and stone: Pigeon, Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia

‘Mr. Darcy Uhr Attacked By Blacks. The Natives Fight and Refuse to Retreat’, Coolgardie Miner, Saturday 18 August 1894, p. 4

National Museum of Australia 2010, Yiwarra Kuju–The Canning Stock Route, National Museum of Australia Press, Canberra

Ngurra Kuju Walyja: The Canning Stock Route Project, 2011-2013 at: http://www.canningstockrouteproject.com/

Owen, Chris 2016, ‘Every Mother’s Son is Guilty’: Policing the Kimberley Frontier of Western Australia 1882–1905, UWA Publishing, Perth

Parliament of Western Australia 1905, Royal Commission on the Condition of the Natives, Report, copy available at: http://sovereignunion.mobi/pdf/2016/Report+of+the+Royal+Commission+on+the+condition+of+the+natives.pdf

Pedersen, Howard and Banjo Woorunmurra 1995, Jandamarra and the Banuba Resistance, Magabala Books, Broome, Western Australia, reprinted 2007

 

Compiled by Jane Morrison 2012–2018